Electric Vehicles Charging Stations’ Architectures, Criteria, Power Converters, and Control Strategies in Microgrids
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionElectronics. 2021, 10 (16), Artikkel 1895. 10.3390/electronics10161895
Electric Vehicles (EV) usage is increasing over the last few years due to a rise in fossil fuel prices and the rate of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The EV charging stations are powered by the existing utility power grid systems, increasing the stress on the utility grid and the load demand at the distribution side. The DC grid-based EV charging is more efficient than the AC distribution because of its higher reliability, power conversion efficiency, simple interfacing with renewable energy sources (RESs), and integration of energy storage units (ESU). The RES-generated power storage in local ESU is an alternative solution for managing the utility grid demand. In addition, to maintain the EV charging demand at the microgrid levels, energy management and control strategies must carefully power the EV battery charging unit. Also, charging stations require dedicated converter topologies, control strategies and need to follow the levels and standards. Based on the EV, ESU, and RES accessibility, the different types of microgrids architecture and control strategies are used to ensure the optimum operation at the EV charging point. Based on the above said merits, this review paper presents the different RES-connected architecture and control strategies used in EV charging stations. This study highlights the importance of different charging station architectures with the current power converter topologies proposed in the literature. In addition, the comparison of the microgrid-based charging station architecture with its energy management, control strategies, and charging converter controls are also presented. The different levels and types of the charging station used for EV charging, in addition to controls and connectors used in the charging station, are discussed. The experiment-based energy management strategy is developed for controlling the power flow among the available sources and charging terminals for the effective utilization of generated renewable power. The main motive of the EMS and its control is to maximize usage of RES consumption. This review also provides the challenges and opportunities for EV charging, considering selecting charging stations in the conclusion.